Military exercise:

A military exercise is the employment of military resources in training for military operations, either exploring the effects of warfare or testing strategies without actual combat. Exercises in the 20th century have often been identified by a unique code name in the same manner as military operations.

military exercise or war game is the employment of military resources in training for military operations, either exploring the effects of warfare or testing strategies without actual combat.

War games involving two or more countries allow for better coordination between militaries, observation of enemy’s tactics, and is a visible show of strength for the participating countries. According to a 2021 study, joint military exercises between allies deter adversaries, while providing institutional constraints on partners and establishing the overall strategic limitations of the alliance.

Exercises are important tools through which the Alliance tests and validates its concepts, procedures, systems and tactics. More broadly, they enable militaries and civilian organizations deployed in theatres of operation to test capabilities and practice working together efficiently in a demanding crisis situation.

Exercise scenarios:

During an exercise, forces are asked to respond to a fictitious scenario that resembles what might occur in real life. Exercises cover the full range of military operations, from combat to humanitarian relief and from stabilization to reconstruction. They can last from a day to several weeks and can vary in scope from a few officers working on an isolated problem, to full-scale combat scenarios involving aircraft, navy ships, artillery pieces, armored vehicles and thousands of troops.

Indian Military Exercises:

The Indian military exercises can be divided into 3 categories:

  • Domestic exercise
  • Bilateral Exercise
  • Multilateral exercise

Domestic Exercise:

This exercise aims to improve internal engagements and there can be inter-services or intra-services depending on nature and its application.

List of Military Domestic Exercises:

  • Gandiv Vijay
  • Paschim Lehar
  • Vayu Shakti
  • Vijay Prahar

Domestic exercises are aimed at improving the internal engagements amongst various departments. They can be inter-services or intra-service depending on their nature and their application.

Gandiv Vijay:

It was Conducted by the Chetak corps of South Western Command of the Indian Army in Mahajan field firing ranges of Rajasthan in May 2018. It was based on offensive operations through joint air-land battles in a network-centric environment employing modern technology.

Paschim Lehar-18:

Tri-service maritime exercise, conducted by Indian Navy off western coast in the Arabian Sea. The exercise is aimed at improving the interoperability between the Indian Navy, Indian Army, Indian Air Force, and Coast Guard.

Vayu Shakti 2019:

It is an Air Force Exercise conducted once every 3 years. It was previously held in 2016 codenamed ‘Iron Fist’. It is a firepower demonstration exercise held at Pokhran, Rajasthan.

Vijay Prahar:

Vijay Prahar Conducted by the South Western Command of IndianArmy. The month-long exercise was aimed to orchestrate a wide spectrum of threats that are planned to be tackled through high-tempo joint air and land operation.

Bilateral Exercises:

A bilateral Exercise is an exercise that is conducted between two countries. Below is a table that shows the list of bilateral exercises:

source: sputnik news

Indian Army:

Indian Navy

Indian Air Force

Multilateral  Exercises of the Indian Army, Indian Air Force and Indian Navy:



Exercise Name: IBSAMAR
Participants:  India, Brazil & South Africa.
Type of Exercise: Navy.
First Edition:  2008- South Africa.


Exercise Name: Blue Flag
Participants:   India, Israel, USA, Poland, Greece, Italy, UK.
Type of Exercise: Air Force.
First Edition:  2013 (Israel). India participated for the first time in 2017.


Exercise Name: Malabar
Participants: India, United States, Australia and Japan.
Type of Exercise: Navy
First Edition: 1992- Bilateral exercise- USA and India- held in India’s west coast. In 2015-Japan joined permanently -held in Bay of Bengal. In 2020- Australia joined- held in Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea.


Exercise Name: MILEX
Participants: India, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand.
Type of Exercise: Field training Military exercise.
First Edition: 2018-Pune.


Exercise Name: PASSEX
Participants: India- Russia, USA, Australia, Vietnam.
Type of Exercise: Navy.


Exercise Name: SITMEX
Participants: India, Thailand and Singapore.
Type of Exercise: Navy.
First Edition: 2019 (Port Blair, India).


Exercise Name: TSENTR
Participants: Russia, China, India, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan,Tajikistan, Pakistan and Uzbekistan.
Type of Exercise: Army.
First Edition: Exercise TSENTR is part of the Russian armed forces’ annual training cycle. It became International
with Belarus joining in 2017 and China and Mongolia in 2018.


Exercise Name: Pitch Black
Participants:Canada, France (New Caledonia), Germany,Indonesia, Netherlands, New Zealand, Singapore,Thailand,
Malaysia and the United States.
Type of Exercise: Air Force.
First Edition: 1981- Australia & Indian Air Force participated for the first time in 2018.