Table of Contents
In dealing with the challenge of climate we must act on several fronts in a focused manner. The National action plan gives stress to the development and use of new technologies. The implementation of the plan would be through an appropriate institutional mechanism suited for effective delivery of each individual Mission’s objectives and include public-private partnerships and civil society action.
There are 8 National missions that form the core of the National Action Plan, representing multipronged, long-term, and integrated strategies for achieving key goals in the context of climate change.
National Solar Mission:
The National Solar Mission is an initiative of the Government of India and State Governments to promote solar power. The mission is one of the several policies of the National Action Plan on Climate Change. The program was inaugurated as the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission by former Prime Minister Manmohan Singh on 11 January 2010 with a target of 20 GW by 2022. This was later increased to 100 GW by Prime Minister Narendra Modi in the 2015 Union budget of India.
The objective of the National Solar Mission is to establish India as a global leader in solar energy, by creating the policy conditions for its diffusion across the country as quickly as possible. Under the original plan, the Government aimed to achieve a total installed solar capacity of 20 GW by 2022. The Government revised the target from 20 GW to 100 GW on 1 July 2015. To reach 100 GW by 2022, the yearly targets from 2015 to 2016 onwards were also revised upwards. India had an installed solar capacity of 161 MW on 31 March 2010, about 2 and half months after the mission was launched on 11 January. By 31 March 2015, three months before the targets were revised, India had achieved an installed solar capacity of 3,744 MW.
To fulfill the targets set up under the mission, the Government launched several schemes in order to promote solar power and reduce dependency on the traditional power sources. One such scheme called Kisan Urja Suraksha Evam Uthhan Mahabhiyan (KUSUM) was approved by Cabinet Committee on Economic affairs in 2019. The program aims for the installation of off-grid solar pumps in rural areas and reduces dependence on a grid in grid-connected areas.
National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency (NMEEE):
The National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency(NMEEE), which seeks to strengthen the market for energy efficiency by creating a conducive regulatory and policy regime. It has been envisaged to foster innovative and sustainable business models in the energy efficiency sector. The NMEEE seeks to create and sustain the market for energy efficiency in the country which will benefit the country and the consumers.
The Mission has four components:
• Perform Achieve and Trade
• Energy Efficiency Financing Platform
• Market Transformation For Energy Efficiency (MTEE)
• Framework For Energy Efficiency Economic Development. (FEEED).
The Perform; Achieve and Trade component of the mission assigns targets to the energy-intensive industries for reducing energy intensity and also allots them energy saving certificates (Escorts), which are tradable amongst the candidates who either breached their targets or remained unsuccessful in achieving it. The Energy Efficiency Financing Platform on the other hand boosts the confidence of the financial institutions and investors to support energy efficiency initiatives. The other two components promote the use and adoption of energy-efficient equipment as well as promote energy efficiency initiatives by hedging against investment risks.
Under the Market Transformation For Energy Efficiency component, the Government launched Bachat Lamp Yojna to replace the incandescent lamps with CFL bulbs. In the scheme which was running since 2009 where the CFL was distributed at reduced prices, the Government was able to recover the cost through the sale of the Certified Emission reduction certificate. The “Bachat Lamp Yojna” was later replaced by the “Unnat Jyoti Affordable LED for All” (UJALA) scheme in 2015, in which LED bulbs were distributed to replace the comparatively more efficient CFL bulbs. The UJALA scheme is implemented by Energy Efficiency Services Limited (EESL); which is a joint venture of Public Sector Undertakings (PSUs) under the power ministry.
National Mission on Sustainable Habitat:
“National Mission on Sustainable Habitat” seeks to promote sustainability of habitats through improvement in energy efficiency in buildings, urban planning, improved management of solid transport, and conservation through appropriate changes in a legal and regulatory framework.
It also seeks to improve the ability of habitats to adapt to climate change by improving the resilience of infrastructure, community-based disaster management, and measures for improving advance warning systems for extreme weather events.
National Water Mission(NWM):
National Water Mission is a comprehensive program for equitable distribution of water across the country as well as for enhancing the capacity-building process for the management of overexploited blocs. It is focused upon tackling the issues related to water availability and pollution which is owed to global warming and climate change.
Developing a framework for optimum water use through an increase in water use efficiency by 20% through regulatory mechanisms with differential entitlements and pricing, taking the National water policy(NWP)into consideration. Ensuring that a considerable share of water needs of urban areas is met through the recycling of wastewater. Meeting water requirements of coastal cities through the adaption of new and appropriate technologies allowing the use of ocean water.
Promotion of water-neutral and water-positive technologies through the design of a proper incentive structure combined with recharging of underground water sources and adoption of large-scale irrigation programs based on efficient methods of irrigation.
National Mission for Sustainable Himalayan Ecosystem:
The most crucial and primary objective of the mission is to develop a sustainable National capacity to continuously assess the health status of the Himalayan Ecosystem and enable policy-formulation function and assists state in the Indian Himalayan Region with their implementation of actions selected for sustainable development.
• Assess the socio-economic and ecological consequences of global environmental change and design appropriate strategies for growth in the economy of the region.
• Study traditional knowledge systems for community participation in adaption, mitigation, and coping mechanisms.
• Create awareness amongst stakeholders in the region.
• Develop regional cooperation to generate a strong knowledge and database for policy interventions.
• Building Human and institutional capacities on climate change-related aspects.
Green India Mission:
The Green India Mission is aimed at protecting, restoring, and enhancing India’s green cover in response to climate change. The mission has a cumulative target of increasing forest cover on 5 million hectares of land while improving the forest cover on additional 5 hectares. The mission also has a target of providing livelihood to 3 million people through forest-based activities and enhancing the provisioning capacity of the Indian forests along with their carbon sequestration capacity.
• Eco-restoration/afforestation of scrub, shifting cultivation areas, cold desert mangroves, ravines, and abandoned mining areas
• Management of public forest/non-forests areas by community institutions.
• Adoption of improved fuel wood-use efficiency and alternative energy devices by households in the projects areas.
• Diversification of forest-based livelihoods of about 3 million households living in and around forests.
• Improvement in the quality of forest cover and ecosystem services of forests/non-forests.
National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA):
National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture includes multiple programs for the sustainable growth of the agriculture sector. It includes interventions like Soil Health Card Scheme, Under NMSA, the Cabinet Committee on Economic affairs released the restructured “National Bamboo Mission” in 2018 to last till the end of the 14th Five Year Plan period. The Mission is a centrally sponsored scheme in which the funding pattern for General states is in 60:40 ratio with the central government while for North-East and hilly areas it is 90:10. The Union Territories will get 100% funding from the center. The goal of the scheme is to promote Bamboo cultivation on non-forest government land and on the private lands of farmers in the states where it has social, commercial, and economic importance.
National Mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change(NMSKCC):
The formation of knowledge networks among the existing knowledge institutions engaged in research and development relating to climate science and facilitating data sharing and exchange through a suitable policy framework and institutional support. Developing of national capacity for modeling the regional impact of climate change on different ecological zones within the country for different seasons and living standards.
Formation of knowledge networks among the existing knowledge institutions engaged in research and development relating to climate science and facilitating data sharing and exchange through a suitable policy framework and institutional support.
Establishment of global technology watch groups with institutional capacities to carry out research on risk minimized technology selection for development choices.
Generating and developing the conceptual and knowledge basis for defining sustainability of development pathways in the light of responsible climate change-related actions.
Providing an improved understanding and awareness of key climate processes and the resultant climate risk and associated consequences. Creating institutional capacity for research infrastructure including access to relevant data sets, computing and communication facilities, and awareness to improve the quality and sector-specific scenarios of climate change over the Indian subcontinent.
Indian Network on Climate Change Assessment:
The Indian network On Climate Change(INCCA)WAS LAUNCHED IN OCTOBER 2009 by the minister of environment and forests (MoEF) IN AN EFFORT TO PROMOTE DOMESTIC RESEARCH ON CLIMATE CHANGE and build on the country’s climate change expertise.
INCCA is a network-based program of the MoEF, which consists of over 120 institutions and over 250 scientists countrywide is aimed at bringing in more science-based policy-making, based on measurement, monitoring, and modeling.
The INCCA will carry out research on the effects of climate change in different regions and sectors in INDIA and suggest suitable adaptation and mitigation steps. Report prepared by INCCA will form part of India National Communication(Nat Com) to the United National Framework Convention on Climate Change(UNFCCC).
The main objective is to have an independent body of Indian scientists who could “prepared scientific reports at a domestic level about the impact of climate change on various sectors, which can give a real picture and influence the world debate”.
INCCA-First Assessment “India” Greenhouse gas Emissions 2007:
The first publication to come out from the INCCA has been an updated greenhouse gas emissions inventory for India for the year 2007. The first Assessment of the Green House Gas emission was released on May 11, 2010.INCCA prepared the country’s greenhouse gas(GHG)emission data” India-Greenhouse Gas Emissions 2007” which said the country’s emissions grew by 58 percent from 1994 to 2007. It covers the sectors of Energy, Industry, Agriculture, Land use land and Forest, and waste by sources and removal by sinks presented in this document.
National Communicaion (NATCOM):
The Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF), Government of India, has initiated a National Communication (NATCOM) project for communicating to the UNFCCC about anthropogenic emissions of GHGs from various sources and their removal by sinks not controlled by the Montreal Protocol.
The National Communication process envisages comprehensive scientific and technical exercises for preparation of inventories of greenhouse gases of anthropogenic origin, reduction of uncertainties in these estimation and vulnerability assessment and adaptation due to climate change, besides other related information of India’s initiatives which address the objectives of the convention.
Towards the preparation of national communication, a broad participatory approach involving research institutions, technical institutions, universities, government departments, and non-governmental and private organizations has been adopted, necessitated by vast regional diversity and sector complexities in India.
Introduction Of Labelling Programme For Appliances:
As energy labeling program for appliances was launched in 2006 and comparative star-based labeling has been introduced for fluorescent tube-light, air-conditions, refrigerators, and distribution transformers. The labes provide information about the energy consumption of an appliance, and thus enable consumers to make informed decisions, The Bureau of Energy Efficiency has made it mandatory for refrigerators to display energy efficiency labels and is expected to do so for air conditioners as well. The standards and labeling program for manufacturers of electrical appliances is expected to lead to significant savings in electricity annually.
Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC-Commercial) 2007:
The Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) was developed by the Govt. of India for new commercial buildings and released on 27th May 2007. ECBC sets minimum energy standards for commercial buildings having a connected load of 100kW or contract demand of 120 KVA and above. While the Central Government has powers under the EC Act 2001, the state governments have the flexibility to modify the code to suit local or regional needs and notify them Presently, the code is an involuntary phase of implementation. About 22 states are at various stages of mandating ECBC, wherein most of the building construction activities are happening across the country.
• Provide technical support to BEE to implement the ECBC in a rigorous manner.
• Develop reference material and documentation to support the Code.
• Develop ECBC Training material for workshops and training programs.
• Develop a road map for ECBC implementation.
• Developed ECBC 2007 (Revised version, May 2008).
• Developed ECBC User Guide. Printed 5,000 copies of the Guide for distribution to the concerned stakeholders.
• Developed ECBC Tip Sheets on Building Envelope, Lighting, HVAC, Energy Simulation.
• Developed Glazing Design and Selection, Lighting Design, and Cool Roof Application Guide.
• Conducted a 2-day workshop titled “Network for Energy Efficiency in the Building Sector – Standards, Education and Information Technology”, with widespread stakeholder participation, in February 2010, to further develop Implementation Roadmap and Compliance Framework.
Indian Solar Loan Programme:
The Indian Solar Loan Programme, supported by the United Nations Environment Programme has won the prestigious Energy Globe World Award for Sustainability for helping to establish a consumer financing program for solar home power systems. Over the span of three years by 2007, more than 16,000 solar home systems have been financed through 2,000 bank branches, particularly in rural areas of South India where the electricity grid does not yet extend. Launched in 2003, the Indian Solar Loan Programme was a four-year partnership between UNEP, the UNEP Risoe Centre, and two of India’s largest banks, the Canara Bank and Syndicate Bank
Climate change is expected to affect human well being in many different ways such as capital, ecosystem, disease, and migration since most of the labor force—about 70%—directly and indirectly, depends on the sector for livelihood and employment, it is when this sector is more productive and ensures food self-sufficiency that it will release the necessary labor and capital for the manufacturing and service sectors. In the context of the current debate about climate change, it is necessary to show, far from being inactive in India, that considerable actions in terms of policies, programs and projects are being taken. Technology transfer can speed up the modernization process and additional funds can accelerate government in energy conservation. However, policies for poverty alleviation must be given priority.